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For people that hate pixels

Anti-aliasing (AA) aims to lower the amount of jagged and pixelated edges in the game. Aliasing occurs when continuous objects such as a line are displayed on a screen made up of a finite number of pixels. Instead of a smooth line one gets one with a stair-like patten. AA solves this by smoothing out the line by filling in the surrounding pixels. It makes it harder to notice the pixelated edges but also reduces contrast and makes the image more blurry.

Techniques that demand or use some form of hardware for AA.

CSAA - Coverage-Sampled Anti-Aliasing - 2006 / EQAA - Enhanced Quality Anti-Aliasing - 2010
Variations of MSAA from Nvidia and AMD. It adds coverage samples to better detect if a primitive touch a pixel.

MSAA - Multi-Sampling Anti-Aliasing - 1999
Each pixel contain N subsample points. If a primitive touch any subsample point it will run the pixel shader. The result is then stored in each of the subsample the primitive was touching. So the z-buffer and the render target need to store N data per pixel. The final step is the resolve step that downsample all the data back to a single pixel. The simplest way is to average all subsamples in a pixel.
SSAA - Super Sampling Anti-Aliasing
The image is rendered into a frame buffer at a higher resolution then the one being displayed. The image is then down sampled to the desired display resolution.

Techniques that post-process the image. For people that enjoy writing shaders.

TXAA - Temporal Anti-Aliasing - 2012
Temporal Reprojection Anti-Aliasing in INSIDE - 2016

SMAA - Subpixel Morphological Anti-Aliasing - 2011

FXAA - Fast Approximate Anti-Aliasing- 2011

DLAA - Directionally Localized Anti Aliasing - 2011

MLAA - Morphological Anti-Aliasing - 2010


Techniques used with deferred rendering and use a geometry buffer to work.

AGAA - Aggregate G-Buffer Anti-Aliasing - 2015

GBAA - Geometry Buffer Antialiasing - 2011