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These are the common forms of lights that are used in 3D and how they work.

Light Sources : The type of light sources and how they act.

Illumination model
The illumination model is the math of how all the light parameters are mixed to get the final color on a surface.

Physically Based Rendering - 2012

Blinn–Phong - 1977
Is the default shading model used in OpenGL and DirectX fixed-function pipeline.

Phong - 1975

Lambert - 1760


Musings on cross-platform graphics engine architectures – Part 1 - 2018
Multipass Shaders (& inverted Hull outlines) - 2018

Point and Spot Lights Lights with Limited Influence

The design and evolution of the UberBake light baking system