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These are the common forms of lights that are used in 3D and how they work.

Light Sources : The type of light sources and how they act.

Illumination model
The illumination model is the math of how all the light parameters are mixed to get the final color on a surface.

Physically Based Rendering - 2012

Blinn–Phong - 1977
Is the default shading model used in OpenGL and DirectX fixed-function pipeline.

Phong - 1975

Lambert - 1760


  The Phong Model, Introduction to the Concepts of Shader, Reflection Models and BRDF
Introduction to Shading