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Version

glGetString​(GL_VERSION​);

There are many versions of OpenGl and they add more as often as possible to confuse everyone. Below are the ones that matter for now. Read about features that have been removed in newer version by looking at the deprecation page.

OpenGL
How much each version is supported can be found at http://www.g-truc.net. Since OpenGL 3.3 the GLSL version number is the same as the OpenGL version.

 YearVersion
GLSL
Comment
 Reference
 2017    4.6
 4.6 SPIR-V Support and Anisotropic filtering.
 
 2014 4.5 4.5  Pages / Card 
 2013 4.4
 4.4
  
 2012 4.3 4.3 The version that seems stable if you only care about NVIDIA and AMD gfx cards. 
 2011 4.2 4.2  
 2010 4.1 4.1  
 2010 4.0 4.0  
 2010 3.3 3.3 The latest version you can use if you also care about OS X.  Pages / Card
 2009 3.2 1.50  
 2009 3.1 1.40 All features deprecated in OpenGL 3.0 are removed except wide lines 
 2008 3.0 1.30 The latest version you can use if you think that fixed-function is the true way to code. 
  2.1 1.20  
 2004 2.0
 1.10  
 1992 1.0   

OpenGL ES


 YearVersion
 Platforms Comment
 2015 3.2  
 2014 3.1 Compute shaders
 2012 3.0 Multiple render targers, texture array
 2007 2.0 Programmable vertex and fragment shaders. (relative to opengl 2.0)
 2004 1.1  
 2003 1.0 Fixed function (relative to opengl 1.5)

WebGL

 YearVersion
 Platforms Comment
 2017 2.0 
Based on OpenGL ES 2.0
 2011 1.0 Based on OpenGL ES 1.0
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