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Version

glGetString​(GL_VERSION​);

There are many versions of OpenGl and they add more as often as possible to confuse everyone. Here are the ones that matter for now.

OpenGL
How much each version is supported can be found at http://www.g-truc.net. Since OpenGL 3.3 the GLSL version number is the same as the OpenGL version.

 YearVersion
GLSL
Comment
 2014 4.5 4.5 The latest bleeding edge one that no driver will support before 2020. Reference Pages / Reference Card 
 2012 4.3 4.3 The version that seems stable if you only care about NVIDIA and AMD gfx cards.
 2010 3.3 3.3 The latest version you can use if you also care about OS X. Reference Pages / Reference Card
 2009 3.2 1.50 
 2009 3.1 1.40 All features deprecated in OpenGL 3.0 are removed except wide lines
 2008 3.0 1.30 The latest version you can use if you spit on shaders and think that fixed-function is the true way to code.
  2.1 1.20 
 2004 2.0
 1.10 
 1992 1.0  

OpenGL ES


 YearVersion
 Platforms Comment
 2015 3.2  
 2014 3.1 Compute shaders
 2012 3.0 Multiple render targers, texture array
 2007 2.0 Programmable vertex and fragment shaders. (relative to opengl 2.0)
 2004 1.1  
 2003 1.0 Fixed function (relative to opengl 1.5)

Reference
OpenGL: Transition to Core Profile - 2014

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