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Internet protocol suite

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IP address 
There are two form of IP addresses, the older IPv4 and the newer IPv6.
  • IPv4 is 32 bits.
  • IPv4 is written as four decimal numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255 and separated by dots. Ex Each part represent a byte.
  • A IPv4 address is split into two parts, network number portion and host number portion.
  • Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation is used to describe how many bits at the start are used for the host network path. It is written as a normal IP adddress and then slash ('/') character and the number of bits in host network. Ex
  • One can also describe it with a subnet mask, ex
  • Some addresses are reserved as private addresses. They should not be linked directly to the internet. One of them is - 
Internet Protocol (IP)
  • Header size: 20 byte
  • Large packets can be fragmented when they travel. Keep package size between 1400 bytes to minimize it.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • Connectionless with a minimum of protocol mechanism.
  • No guarantee of delivery, ordering, or duplicate protection.
  • Application receives it as separate packets of data. 
  • Header size: 8 + 20 (IP) = 28 byte.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • Reliable, ordered and error-checked.
  • Application receives it as a stream of bytes.
  • Header size: 20 + 20 (IP) = 40 byte. 

Beej's Guide to Network Programming

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