Internet protocol suite

Re-verify our range to target... one ping only.

IP address

There are two form of IP addresses, the older IPv4 and the newer IPv6.

  • IPv4 is 32 bits.
  • IPv4 is written as four decimal numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255 and separated by dots. Ex 192.168.0.22. Each part represent a byte.
  • A IPv4 address is split into two parts, network number portion and host number portion.
  • Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation is used to describe how many bits at the start are used for the host network path. It is written as a normal IP adddress and then slash ('/') character and the number of bits in host network. Ex 192.168.0.22/24.
  • One can also describe it with a subnet mask, ex 255.255.255.0
  • Some addresses are reserved as private addresses. They should not be linked directly to the internet. One of them is 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255.

Internet Protocol (IP)

  • Header size: 20 byte
  • Large packets can be fragmented when they travel. Keep package size between 1400 bytes to minimize it.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

NAT Punch-through

Reference

IP addresses & routing

Beej's Guide to Network Programming

http://beej.us/guide/bgnet/

Winsock Programmer’s FAQ

http://tangentsoft.net/wskfaq/