Design

The total experience of playing a video game is called gameplay.

Mechanics (rules): The components of the game.
Dynamics (system): How these components act with the player and each other.
Aesthetics (experience): The response from the player when he interacts with the game system.

About specific games
RetroAhoy: Doom - 2016
Game Maker's Toolkit - What We Can Learn From Doom - 2016
Noah Caldwell-Gervais Game Retrospective - 2015
RetroAhoy: Carmageddon - 2015
RetroAhoy: Syndicate - 2015
Handmade Hero - 2014

UI
Game UI By Example: A Crash Course in the Good and the Bad - 2013

Process
How to really involve a larger team in the creative process - 2012
Visualizing the Creative Process - 2010
What is your game design style? - 2009

Reference
Bloodborne: You are the experience points - 2016
There Is No Such Thing As A Cinematic Video Game - 2016
History of the best immersive sims - 2016
Engines of Play: How Player Motivation Changes Over Time - 2016
Keeping Level Designers in the Zone Through Level Editor Design - 2016
Gods and Dumps: Attribute Tuning in Pillars of Eternity - 2016
What Makes an Indie Hit?: How to Choose the Right Design - 2015
50 Game Camera Mistakes - 2015
How Cameras in Side-Scrollers Work - 2015
How Board Games Matter - 2015
The Heart of Game Systems - 2015
On the Taxonomy of Spaceships - 2015
A Brief History of Graphics - 2015
Crafting a 2D RPG - 2013
Mechanics, Dynamics, Aesthetics - 2013
Multiplayer Logistics - 2013
Loops and arcs - 2012
The indie marketing plan - 2012
Level 2: Game Design / Iteration and Rapid Prototyping - 2009
Gameplay Fundamentals Revisited, Part 2: Building a Pacing Structure - 2008
Gameplay Fundamentals Revisited: Harnessed Pacing & Intensity - 2008
The Chemistry Of Game Design - 2007
Gameplay Design Fundamentals: Gameplay Progression  - 2006
What are game mechanics? - 2006
Persistent myths about Game Design - 2006
Managing game design risk: Part I and Part II - 2006
Creating a system of game play notation - 2006
A practical definition of innovation in game design - 2005
The Game Design Process - 1999
Ultima Ratio Regum
Steam Database!
Looking Glass Studios Interview Series - 2012