Design

The total experience of playing a video game is called gameplay.

Mechanics (rules): The components of the game.
Dynamics (system): How these components act with the player and each other.
Aesthetics (experience): The response from the player when he interacts with the game system.

About specific games
RetroAhoy: Doom - 2016
Game Maker's Toolkit - What We Can Learn From Doom - 2016
Noah Caldwell-Gervais Game Retrospective - 2015
RetroAhoy: Carmageddon - 2015
RetroAhoy: Syndicate - 2015
Handmade Hero - 2014

UI
Game UI By Example: A Crash Course in the Good and the Bad - 2013

Process
How to really involve a larger team in the creative process - 2012
Visualizing the Creative Process - 2010
What is your game design style? - 2009

Reference