A rigid body is a solid body that can not be deformed. No matter what forces act on the body two given points on it is always in the same relative position to each other. It moves and collides as a single unit. It can be made up of many shapes but they always stay in the same position relative to each other.
The mass of the body. It can be calculated from the density of the material and the volume of the body. Raw calculation might be off as most objects are not solid. A car is made of metal but it's not a solid metal block.
Center of mass
A static cannot do not move but other non static bodies can collide with it. Example is a height map or a house.
This is a normal physic body like a car or a box. It has a mass and when it collides with things there will be forces that act on it and make it move.
A kinematic body is one that is not influence by other dynamic bodies. It is moved by the game code directly, for example by a animation. It can still affect other dynamic bodies and push them aside. One example is the GTA5 - Train.
The material used on the body.
Damping make the object stop moving after a while even if not other force act on it. Linear damping is how fast movement slows down and angular damping is how fast rotation slow down.